Type-1 diabetes also known as juvenile diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in children and young adults. Insulin is a hormone that helps move sugar, or glucose, into your body’s tissues. Cells use it as fuel. In type 1 diabetes, the body does not produce insulin. The body breaks down the sugars and starches you eat into a simple sugar called glucose, which it uses for energy. Insulin is a hormone that the body needs to get glucose from the bloodstream into the cells of the body.

In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas, a large gland behind the stomach, stops making insulin because the cells that make the insulin have been destroyed by the body’s immune system. Without insulin, the body’s cells cannot turn glucose (sugar) into energy. However, it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Risk factors include having a family member with the condition. People with type 1 diabetes depend on insulin every day of their lives to replace the insulin the body cannot produce. They must test their blood glucose levels several times throughout the day.

Symptoms

  • Being excessively thirsty
  • Always feeling hungry
  • Blurred vision
  • Frequent urination & passing more urine
  • Feeling tired and lethargic
  • Having cuts that heal slowly
  • Itching, skin infections
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Mood swings
  • Headaches
  • Feeling dizzy
  • Leg cramps

Causes

Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition, which means your immune system attacks healthy body tissue by mistake. In this case, it attacks the cells in your pancreas. Your damaged pancreas is then unable to produce insulin. So, glucose cannot be moved out of your bloodstream and into your cells. Genetics, including family history and the prenatal environment of the mother, can put someone at risk for developing type 1 diabetes. Exposure to viruses and other environmental factors also can trigger the auto-immune process. Environmental exposures include chemicals, especially those found in plastics and foods can also trigger type-1 diabetes.

Diagnoses

Type 1 diabetes is diagnosed with a blood test for blood glucose. If your results are:

  • greater than 125 when fasting a diagnose of diabetes is made
  • greater than 200 randomly a diagnose of diabetes is made

Another test called A1C test can be done for detailed checking for type-1 diabetes.