Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes insipidus is a rare disorder that occurs when a person’s kidneys pass an abnormally large volume of urine that is insipid—dilute and odorless. In most people, the kidneys pass about 1 to 2 quarts of urine a day. In people with diabetes insipidus, the kidneys can pass 3 to 20 quarts of urine a day. As a result, a person with diabetes insipidus may feel the need to drink large amounts of liquids.
While the names diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus sound similar, they’re not related. Diabetes mellitus — which can occur as type 1 or type 2 is the more common form of diabetes. Diabetes insipidus isn’t related to diabetes mellitus (usually just known as diabetes), but it does share some of the same signs and symptoms.

The two main symptoms of diabetes insipidus are:

a) Extreme thirst (polydipsia)
b) Passing large amounts of urine, even at night (polyuria)

The several forms of Diabetes Insipidus are:

1) Central Diabetes Insipidus

It is a lack of the hormone vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone) that causes excessive production of very dilute urine (polyuria). Central diabetes insipidus has several causes, including a brain tumor, a brain injury, brain surgery, tuberculosis, and some forms of other diseases. Central insipidus is the most common type of Diabetes Insipidus.

2) Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus

Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is due to the inability of the kidney to respond normally to vasopressin. The kidneys produce a large volume of dilute urine because the kidney tubules fail to respond to vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone) and are unable to reabsorb filtered water back into the body.

3) Dipsogenic Diabetes Insipidus

Dipsogenic DI or primary polydipsia results from excessive intake of fluids as opposed to deficiency of arginine vasopressin. It may be due to a defect or damage to the thirst mechanism, located in the hypothalamus;[7] or due to mental illness.

4) Gestational Diabetes Insipidus

Gestational diabetes is detected in pregnant women. If you had gestational diabetes, you have a great chance of developing type 2 diabetes later in life.

Symptoms

  • Excessive thirst
  • Excessive urine production (polyuria)
  • Unexplained weakness
  • Lethargy
  • Muscle pains
  • Irritability
  • Fever
  • Weight loss
  • Vomiting

Causes

Diabetes insipidus is caused by problems with a hormone called vasopressin (AVP), also called antidiuretic hormone (ADH). When your body can’t regulate fluids diabetes insipidus happens. Kidneys main responsibility is to remove excess body fluids. AVP plays a key role in regulating the amount of fluid in the body. The excess fluids waste are temporarily stored in your bladder as urine, before you urinate.